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It fills the spaces between muscle fibers, surrounds blood and lymph vessels, and supports organs in the abdominal cavity. Young athletes, dancers, and computer operators; anyone who performs the same movements constantly is at risk for tendinitis. These layers are referred to as the superficial fascia, deep fascia, and subserous fascia (Figure \(\PageIndex{9}\)). Areolar tissue : Connective tissues perform many functions in the body, but most importantly, they support and connect other tissues; from the connective tissue sheath that surrounds muscle cells, to the tendons that attach muscles to bones, and to the skeleton that supports the positions of the body. The most abundant cell in connective tissue proper is the fibroblast. Composed of many types of cells 3. both organic and Tissues are either classified as proper, embryonic, or specialized. This arrangement gives the tissue greater strength in all directions and less strength in one particular direction. Although repetitive motions are unavoidable in many activities and may lead to tendinitis, precautions can be taken that can lessen the probability of developing tendinitis. The connective tissues are of five major types : –. inorganic. Animal tissues are grouped into four basic types: connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial. Collagen fibres provide flexibility and strength whereas elastic fibres provide elasticity. Dense connective tissue is reinforced by bundles of fibers that provide tensile strength, elasticity, and protection. These combine to form a proteoglycan with a protein core and polysaccharide branches. Bone tissue is highly vascularized. A second type of embryonic connective tissue forms in the umbilical cord, called mucous connective tissue or Wharton’s jelly. Despite their diversity, based on the properties of the extracellular matrix, connective tissues can be grouped into four major types and then further divided into smaller classes. They originate in the mesodermal germ layer and differentiate from mesenchyme and hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow. A layer of dense irregular connective tissue covers cartilage. The adipose tissue is found beneath the skin, in the covering of the heart, around the blood vessels and kidney and in yellow bone marrow. Connective tissues come in a vast variety of forms, yet they typically have in common three characteristic components: cells, large amounts of amorphous ground substance, and protein fibers. They provide levers for movement and support for soft parts of the body. One of the main functions of connective tissue is to integrate organs and organ systems in the body. All of these fiber types are embedded in ground substance. Connective tissues are divided into three groups: Loose Connective Tissue. Cartilage is a hard but flexible skeletal tissue consisting of living cells embedded … The three main types of cartilage tissue are hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage (Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\)). What does connective tissue look like? Specialised Connective Tissue. They are formed of a protein called elastic. Connective tissues support your organs, attach muscles to bones, and create scar tissue after an injury. Recall from the first section of this chapter that membranes form all the body linings and are made up of epithelial tissues with a layer of underlying connective tissue. Examples of connective tissues include tendons, ligaments, bones, blood, adipose and areolar tissues. Blood. Definition. The main property of elastin is that after being stretched or compressed, it will return to its original shape. It contains all the cell types and fibers previously described and is distributed in a random, web-like fashion. It derives its name from the Latin reticulus, which means “little net.”. Lymph is a colourless fluid that has filtered out of the blood capillaries. It absorbs stresses and provides flexibility to the body parts. General connective tissue. Functions. Have questions or comments? They are also called gristle. This is probably ________. They are secreted by the surrounding connective tissue cells. Dense Connective Tissue 3. Fluid connective tissue links the different parts of body and maintains a continuity in the body. Connective tissue is derived from the third germ layer, the mesoderm, which is the same source of origin of muscle tissue. A plate of hyaline cartilage at the ends of bone allows continued growth until adulthood. 28 terms. Leukocytes, white blood cells, are responsible for defending against potentially harmful microorganisms or molecules. When irritated or damaged, mast cells release histamine, an inflammatory mediator, which causes vasodilation and increased blood flow at a site of injury or infection, along with itching, swelling, and redness you recognize as an allergic response. Lastly, found in between the deep fascia and the serous membranes, is the subserous fascia. There are two types of skeletal tissues. In contrast, white fat adipocytes store lipids as a single large drop and are metabolically less active. Under membranes there can be several different layers of connective tissues that function to connect internal structures to the rest of the body. Like blood cells, mast cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are part of the immune system. The major types of connective tissue are connective tissue proper, supportive tissue, and fluid tissue. The three broad categories of connective tissue are classified according to the characteristics of their ground substance and the types of fibers found within the matrix (Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)). This is a factor contributing to the very slow healing of cartilaginous tissues. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Granulocytes include neutorphils, eosinophils and  basophils. Embedded within the cartilage matrix are chondrocytes, or cartilage cells, and the space they occupy are called lacunae (singular = lacuna). The connective tissues include several types of fibrous tissue that vary only in their density and cellularity, as well as the more specialized and recognizable variants— bone, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and adipose (fat) tissue. Transport of fluid, nutrients, waste, and chemical messengers is ensured by specialized fluid connective tissues, such as blood and lymph. “ordinary” connective tissues “specialized” connective tissues: The extracellular matrix contains fluid, proteins, polysaccharide derivatives, and, in the case of bone, mineral crystals. Fibroblasts are the most abundant and secrete many protein fibers, adipocytes specialize in fat storage, hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow give rise to all the blood cells, chondrocytes form cartilage, and osteocytes form bone. Adipose is primarily a fat storing tissue in which the matrix is packed with large, spherical or oval fat cells (or adipocytes). Many different cells contribute to the formation of connective tissues. Unlike epithelial tissue, which is composed of cells closely packed with little or no extracellular space in between, connective tissue cells are dispersed in a matrix. Loose irregular connective tissue contains numerous cells and a loose fiber arrangement in a moderately viscous fluid matrix. Visit this link  (http://www2.yvcc.edu/histologyzoomer...issueQuiz.html)  to test your connective tissue knowledge with this 10-question quiz. and flexible. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. In contrast, fixed macrophages are permanent residents of their tissues. There are various types of connective tissue, all of which consist of varying combinations of fibers, cells, and intercellular substance.Over 200 conditions, which may be inherited or autoimmune, affect connective tissue, and they are collectively … Surgical repair of a tendon is painful. Q. Ligaments connect bones together and withstand a lot of stress. Connective tissue proper includes loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue. The white blood cells (WBC’s) fight disease either by engulfing and destroying foreign. Connective tissue is found between other tissue types and organs. Called osteoblasts, embedded in a firm, calcified matrix. Clusters of mesenchymal cells are scattered throughout adult tissue and supply the cells needed for replacement and repair after a connective tissue injury. Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are responsible for the defense of the organism against potentially harmful microorganisms or molecules. Classification of Connective Tissues. Blood : Adipose tissue consists mostly of fat storage cells, with little extracellular matrix (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). Cartilage contains chondrocytes and is somewhat flexible. In bone, the matrix is rigid and described as calcified because of the deposited calcium salts. Besides, they are the wide-spaced cell in the small cavities … Unlike cartilage, bone tissue can recover from injuries in a relatively short time. Characteristics. Injuries to cartilage heal very slowly because cells and nutrients needed for repair diffuse slowly to the injury site. Erythrocytes, red blood cells, transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide. alholmes. Under, or deep to, the superficial fascia is the deep fascia. Blood vessels and nerves are absent in the matrix. The osteoblasts are contained in lacunae (spaces) which are arranged in concentric circles present throughout the matrix. The red blood corpuscles (RBC’s) carry oxygen to the tissues for the oxidation of food stuff. Connective tissues help provide mechanical strength, shape and rigidity to the organs and keep them in place. Connective tissue disease refers to a group of disorders involving the protein-rich tissue that supports organs and other parts of the body. It has cells. Brown adipose tissue is thermogenic, meaning that as it breaks down fats, it releases metabolic heat, rather than producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a key molecule used in metabolism. No blood vessels supply cartilage tissue. With proper rest and managed care, you will be back on the court to hit that slice-spin serve over the net. Elastic fibers are prominent in elastic tissues found in skin and the elastic ligaments of the vertebral column. 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(a)  Tendon : Tendons are cord-like, very tough, inelastic bundles of white collagen fibres bound  together by areolar tissue. The adipose tissue is arranged in lobules encased in areolar tissue. It forms a shock aborbing cushion around the kidneys and the eyeballs. For active individuals, dynamic stretches before exercising and cross training or changing exercises are recommended. A large number of capillaries allow rapid storage and mobilization of lipid molecules. Nutrients, salts, and waste are dissolved in the liquid matrix and transported through the body. 29 terms. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER (examples of these are shown below) loose irregular connective tissue ; dense irregular connective tissue; SPECIALISED CONNECTIVE TISSUES. These fibers hold connective tissues together, even during the movement of the body. It is most widely distributed  connective tissue in the animal body. Bone is a very strong and non-flexible vertebrate connective tissue. CLASSFICATION OF C. 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